Large-scale Environmental Influences on Tropical Cyclone Formation Processes and Development Time

Hsu-Feng Teng, James M. Done, Cheng-Shang Lee, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Ying-Hwa Kuo
2020 Journal of Climate  
The development of tropical cloud clusters (TCCs) to tropical cyclones (TCs) is the process of TC formation. This study identifies five main environmental transitions for the development of TCCs to TCs in the western North Pacific by using a cluster analysis method. Of these, three transitions indicate TCCs that develop in monsoon environments and two in easterly environments. Their numbers, distributions, and interannual variability differ. On average, the development time, defined as the
more » ... d from the TCC forming to it developing into a TC, for TCCs that develop in easterly environments is shorter than that in monsoon environments. For the development of TCC to TC in easterly environments, TCCs have fewer embedded mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), which are located closer to the TCC center. Moreover, there is a stronger inward short-term (less than 10 days) angular momentum flux (AMF) at middle levels (800–500 hPa) before TCC formation. Conversely, in monsoon environments, TCCs have more MCSs, which are located farther from the TCC center. A stronger inward short-term AMF at low levels (1000–850 hPa) is observed before TCC formation and develops upward during the development of TCC to TC. The characteristics of MCS and AMF are significantly correlated with the development time of TCC to TC. In summary, large-scale easterly and monsoon environments cause TCCs to have different MCS and AMF characteristics, leading to higher efficiency for TCCs developing into TCs in easterly environments compared to monsoon environments.
doi:10.1175/jcli-d-19-0709.1 fatcat:r2mjw6pfqbauno72ppw7tr5q2i