On the Heisenberg and Schrödinger Pictures

Shigeji Fujita, James MacNabb III, Akira Suzuki
2014 Journal of Modern Physics  
A quantum theory for a one-electron system can be developed in either Heisenberg picture or Schrödinger picture. For a many-electron system, a theory must be developed in the Heisenberg picture, and the indistinguishability and Pauli's exclusion principle must be incorporated. The hydrogen atom energy levels are obtained by solving the Schrödinger energy eigenvalue equation, which is the most significant result obtained in the Schrödinger picture. Both boson and fermion field equations are
more » ... equations are nonlinear in the presence of a pair interaction.
doi:10.4236/jmp.2014.55027 fatcat:rt5cnhvkgne3jj2wmdenvtj7du