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While there has been a large body of literature addressing offline path planning for manipulators, there is relatively less study on real-time motion planning that occurs as a manipulator moves in an environment with unknown obstacles or unknown changes. This paper introduces a unified and general motion planning approach based on evolutionary computation that is suitable for both offline and real-time adaptive motion planning for manipulators under various optimization criteria and manipulatordoi:10.1109/iros.2004.1389401 dblp:conf/iros/VannoyX04 fatcat:ubzozgehu5atfgagipz2yr7e4u