SAT-373 A Case of X Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets Due to DE Novo Phex Gene Mutation

Ahmed Badran, Renee Bargman
2020 Journal of the Endocrine Society  
Introduction Rickets is a condition that can affect bones of infants and children. It is characterized by growth plate demineralization and can occur secondary to, most commonly, vitamin D deficiency or various problems with vitamin D, Calcium or Phosphate metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a type of rickets that is inherited by X linked dominant pattern mainly however it can be also inherited by autosomal dominant and recessive patterns in rare cases. X linked dominant type (XLH)
more » ... nant type (XLH) affects about 1 in 20,000 newborns. Each of the other hereditary forms of HR has been identified in only a few families. Clinical features of XLH is similar to other types of rickets including metaphyseal widening, palpable rachitic rosaries, frontal prominence, malformation of the horizontal depression along the lower border of the chest, insufficient weight gain and leg bowing. Case presentation: A 10-month-old infant presented to endocrinology with vitamin D deficiency, low serum phosphorus and hyperparathyroidism. Physical examination showed macrocephaly with frontal bossing, widening of the wrists and rachitic rosaries. His lab results showed low 25 OH vitamin D (11 ng/ml) (N:20-50 ng/ml), low phosphorus (PO4) (3.3 mg/dl) (N:4-6.5 mg/dl), high PTH (113 pg/ml) (N: 20-65pg/ml), high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (836 IU/L) (N: 135-518 IU/L) and normal calcium (Ca2+) (9.6 mg/dl) (N:9-11 mg/dl). Vitamin D treatment was started however his follow up lab results showed persistent hypophosphatemia for age (2.8mg/dl) and elevated ALP (600IU/l) despite normalization of vitamin D (38 ng/ml). Additional lab tests were done showing high PO4 excretion (19.5 mg/dl)(N:1:3.5 mg/dl), Ca/Cr ratio 0.005 (N <0.14), inappropriately normal FGF23 level (129 RU/ml) (N: >124 RU/mL). Genetic testing showed de novo mutation in PHEX gene (871C>T) which is consistent with XLH. PHEX gene mutation is the most common mutation associated with XLH. Normally this gene can directly or indirectly regulate a protein called fibroblast growth factor 23 (produced from FGF23 gene). This protein normally inhibits renal reabsorption of phosphate into the bloodstream. Gene mutations increase the production or reduce the breakdown of fibroblast growth factor 23 leading to an overactivation of this protein and reduction of phosphate reabsorption by the kidneys, resulting in hypophosphatemia. The patient was maintained on Burosomab (0.4 mg/kg biweekly); a recombinant human monoclonal antibody (IgG1) that binds to and inhibits the activity of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and increases the phosphate reabsorption in the renal tubules. Conclusion: XLH due to PHEX gene mutation should be considered in rachitic children who have persistently low phosphate levels despite treating vitamin D deficiency.
doi:10.1210/jendso/bvaa046.645 fatcat:n327xhx6vjgpth2puelhk2pca4