OVERPRODUCTION OF FREE RADICAL SPECIES IN EMBRYONAL CELLS EXPOSED TO LOW INTENSITY RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION
Aim: Long-term exposure of humans to low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) leads to a statistically significant increase in tumor incidence. Mechanisms of such the effects are unclear, but features of oxidative stress in living cells under RF-EMR exposure were previously reported. Our study aims to assess a production of initial free radical species, which lead to oxidative stress in the cell. Materials and Methods: Embryos of Japanese quails were exposed in ovo to
... posed in ovo to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz (0.25 µW/cm 2) during 158-360 h discontinuously (48 cON , 12 c-OFF) before and in the initial stages of development. The levels of superoxide (O 2 ·-), nitrogen oxide (NO·), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and antioxidant enzymes' activities were assessed in cells/tissues of 38-h, 5-and 10-day RF-EMR exposed and unexposed embryos. Results: The exposure resulted in a significant persistent overproduction of superoxide and nitrogen oxide in embryo cells during all period of analyses. As a result, significantly increased levels of TBARS and 8-oxo-dG followed by significantly decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were developed in the exposed embryo cells. Conclusion: Exposure of developing quail embryos to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz during at least one hundred and fifty-eight hours leads to a significant overproduction of free radicals/reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage of DNA in embryo cells. These oxidative changes may lead to pathologies up to oncogenic transformation of cells.