Near-Optimal Compression for the Planar Graph Metric [chapter]

Amir Abboud, Pawel Gawrychowski, Shay Mozes, Oren Weimann
2018 Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms  
The Planar Graph Metric Compression Problem is to compactly encode the distances among k nodes in a planar graph of size n. Two naïve solutions are to store the graph using O(n) bits, or to explicitly store the distance matrix with O(k 2 log n) bits. The only lower bounds are from the seminal work of Gavoille, Peleg, Pérennes, and Raz [SODA'01], who rule out compressions into a polynomially smaller number of bits, for weighted planar graphs, but leave a large gap for unweighted planar graphs.
more » ... r example, when k = √ n, the upper bound is O(n) and their constructions imply an Ω(n 3/4 ) lower bound. This gap is directly related to other major open questions in labeling schemes, dynamic algorithms, and compact routing. Our main result is a new compression of the planar graph metric intoÕ(min(k 2 , √ k · n)) bits, which is optimal up to log factors. Our data structure circumvents an Ω(k 2 ) lower bound of Krauthgamer, Nguyen, and Zondiner [SIDMA'14] for compression using minors, and the lower bound of Gavoille et al. for compression of weighted planar graphs. This is an unexpected and decisive proof that weights can make planar graphs inherently more complex. Moreover, we design a new Subset Distance Oracle for planar graphs withÕ( √ k · n) space, andÕ(n 3/4 ) query time. Our work carries strong messages to related fields. In particular, the famous O(n 1/2 ) vs. Ω(n 1/3 ) gap for distance labeling schemes in planar graphs cannot be resolved with the current lower bound techniques. On the positive side, we introduce the powerful tool of unit-monge to planar graph algorithms.
doi:10.1137/1.9781611975031.35 dblp:conf/soda/AbboudGMW18 fatcat:q25ljpjydvbrnhbd3igman3zq4