Noise-based antenna terms for active receiving arrays

Karl F. Warnick, Marianna Ivashina, Rob Maaskant, Bert Woestenburg
2012 Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation  
For active receiving arrays with complex receiver chains, nonreciprocal components in the beamforming network, or digitally sampled and processed output signals, existing transmit-based antenna terms such as gain and radiation efficiency cannot be directly applied. Using the reciprocity principle to obtain an equivalence between the total power radiated by a transmitting antenna and the noise power at the output of a receiving antenna, a new set of more general, receiverspecific antenna terms
more » ... fic antenna terms have been obtained. For passive, reciprocal antennas, the new definitions are rigorously equivalent to existing definitions. The terms have received the IEEE Antenna Definitions Working Group's support for inclusion pending final approval by the Antenna Standards Committee in the next update of the IEEE standard for antenna terms. Receiving efficiency. For a receiving active array antenna, the ratio of the isotropic noise response with noiseless antenna to the isotropic noise response, per unit bandwidth and at a specified frequency. Noise matching efficiency. For a receiving active array antenna, the ratio of the noise power contributed by receiver electronics at the output of a formed beam, with receivers impedance matched to the array elements for minimum noise, to the actual receiver electronics noise power at the formed beam output, per unit bandwidth and at a specified frequency.
doi:10.1109/aps.2012.6348696 fatcat:u2e7tpaabbbyvhs7ym2u42stau