Improving the sectional Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) aerosols of the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with the revised Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation system and multi-wavelength aerosol optical measurements: the dust aerosol observation campaign at Kashi, near the Taklimakan Desert, northwestern China
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Abstract. The Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimilation (DA) system was developed for the four size bin sectional Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) aerosol mechanism in the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. The forward and tangent linear operators for the aerosol optical depth (AOD) analysis were derived from WRF-Chem aerosol optical code. We applied three-dimensional variational DA to assimilate the multi-wavelength AOD,
... ent aerosol scattering coefficient, and aerosol absorption coefficient, measured by the sun–sky photometer, nephelometer, and aethalometer, respectively. These measurements were undertaken during a dust observation field campaign at Kashi in northwestern China in April 2019. The results showed that the DA analyses decreased the model aerosols' low biases; however, it had some deficiencies. Assimilating the surface particle concentration increased the coarse particles in the dust episodes, but AOD and the coefficients for aerosol scattering and absorption were still lower than those observed. Assimilating aerosol scattering coefficient separately from AOD improved the two optical quantities. However, it caused an overestimation of the particle concentrations at the surface. Assimilating the aerosol absorption coefficient yielded the highest positive bias in the surface particle concentration, aerosol scattering coefficient, and AOD. The positive biases in the DA analysis were caused by the forward operator underestimating aerosol mass scattering and absorption efficiency. As compensation, the DA system increased particle concentrations excessively to fit the observed optical values. The best overall improvements were obtained from the simultaneous assimilation of the surface particle concentration and AOD. The assimilation did not substantially change the aerosol chemical fractions. After DA, the clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing at Kashi was −10.4 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere, which was 55 % higher than the radiative forcing value before DA.