Involvement of Thyroid Hormones in Brain Development and Cancer

Gabriella Schiera, Carlo Maria Di Liegro, Italia Di Liegro
2021 Cancers  
The development and maturation of the mammalian brain are regulated by thyroid hormones (THs). Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism cause serious anomalies in the organization and function of the nervous system. Most importantly, brain development is sensitive to TH supply well before the onset of the fetal thyroid function, and thus depends on the trans-placental transfer of maternal THs during pregnancy. Although the mechanism of action of THs mainly involves direct regulation of gene
more » ... lation of gene expression (genomic effects), mediated by nuclear receptors (THRs), it is now clear that THs can elicit cell responses also by binding to plasma membrane sites (non-genomic effects). Genomic and non-genomic effects of THs cooperate in modeling chromatin organization and function, thus controlling proliferation, maturation, and metabolism of the nervous system. However, the complex interplay of THs with their targets has also been suggested to impact cancer proliferation as well as metastatic processes. Herein, after discussing the general mechanisms of action of THs and their physiological effects on the nervous system, we will summarize a collection of data showing that thyroid hormone levels might influence cancer proliferation and invasion.
doi:10.3390/cancers13112693 pmid:34070729 fatcat:bm5ekrh7pbgjfgamskezmt6pqu