Characterization of Mg-Saponites Synthesized from Gels Containing Amounts of Na+, K+, Rb+, Ca2+, Ba2+, or Ce4+ Equivalent to the CEC of the Saponite*

J. Theo Kloprogge
1994 Clays and clay minerals  
Saponites were hydrothermally grown in the presence of amounts of NH4 + , Na § , K § Rb +, Ca 2+, Ba 2+, and Ce 4+ equivalent with the CEC of the saponite (155 meq/100 g), with or without F , at a temperature of 200~ for 72 hr. XRD and CEC data revealed the formation of a two-water-layer saponite with mainly Mg 2 § as interlayer cation. Dehydration occurred between 25* and 450.C and dehydroxylation occurred in two steps between 450 ~ and 790"C and between 790* and 890.C. The relatively small
more » ... gth of the b-axis between 9.151 and 9.180/~ is explained by considerable octahedral AI substitution (between 0.28 and 0.70 per three sites) and minor tetrahedral AI substitution (between 0.28 and 0.58 per four sites). Under the synthesis conditions applied in this study, less than 13% of the interlayer sites are occupied by Na*, K +, and Rb+; between 13.3% and 21% by Ca ~+ and BaZ+; while NH4 + gives the highest value at 34%. The remaining sites are mainly filled by Mg ~+ . Ce 4+ is not found in the saponite structure due to the formation of cerianite, CeO2. The presence of F-had little influence on the saponite composition. The formation of Mg-saponites is explained by a model in which an increased bayerite formation resulting in a higher octahedral ml 3+ substitution and more Mg 2+ in solution. Mg 2+ is preferentially incorporated compared with the other interlayer cations due to its smallest ionic radius in combination with its 2+ charge.
doi:10.1346/ccmn.1994.0420103 fatcat:hhynlh5ck5bapkjipv3rfgui7u