Female ovarian steroids in epilepsy: A cause or remedy

Mohammad N. Alam, Aakifa Ahmad, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi, Aftab Ahmad
2013 Pharmacological Reports  
In this article, we review published preclinical and clinical studies that examine the role of female ovarian steroids (estrogen and progesterone) in epilepsy. Its effects on the reproductive and endocrine system are well known but a large and growing body of evidences indicates that the hormones also exert neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. Estrogen crosses the blood-brain barrier due to its low molecular weight and lipophilic properties and easily reaches the neuronal
more » ... s the neuronal tissue. Estrogens and progesterone influence neuronal activity and are important for normal brain functions. It is commonly accepted that estrogens may increase neuronal excitability and thus mediate proconvulsant effects whereas in case of progesterone, various preclinical and clinical studies have proved that progesterone shows anticonvulsant effects. To concise our review we concluded that the effects of estrogens and progesterone on seizures depend on various factors, such as treatment duration and latency prior to the seizure testing, dose, hormonal status, the seizure type/model used and sex. Abbreviations: CE -catamenial epilepsy, CNS -central nervous system, DMSO -dimethyl sulfoxide, DNA -deoxyribonucleic acid, E1-estrone, E2 -estradiol, E3 -estriol, EEGelectroencephalography, EPR -estrogen to progesterone ratio, ER -estrogen receptor, ERX -estrogen receptor, ERa -estrogen receptor a, ERb -estrogen receptor b, NMDA -N-methyl-Daspartate, OVX -ovariectomized, PR -progesterone receptor, PR-A -progesterone receptor A, PR-B -progesterone receptor B, PRKO -progesterone receptor knockout mice, PTZ -pentylenetetrazole, RU 486 -progesterone receptor antagonist
doi:10.1016/s1734-1140(13)71061-2 pmid:24145074 fatcat:hsrf4sfz6bcv5phu5hqslkd6o4