Emotion in Sport Spectator Behavior: Development of a Measurement Scale and Its Application to Models

Misaki SUMINO, Munehiko HARADA
2005 Journal of Japan Society of Sports Industry  
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure spectator emotion and investigate the influence of spectator emotion upon the antecedent variables of future game attendance of spectators. The development of the measurement scale was conducted through the following procedure: l) Collecting the items of measurement from the existing measure and a field survey at a stadium. 2) Reducing the set of items to obtain a reasonable measurement scale for the field study. 3) Confirming the
more » ... ity and reliability of the measurement using confirmatory factor analysis. Through this procedure, an initial scale measuring 14 emotions (anger, excitement, fear, joy, shame, worry, envy, optimism, relief, pride, guilt, peacefulness, sadness, and surprise) was developed. In the investigation into the influence of spectator emotion, three kinds of relationships among the variables were analyzed using multiple regression analysis and covariance structure analysis. These were: 1) the relationship between affective experiences and team loyalty, 2) the relationship between affective reactions and satisfaction, and 3) the relationship between affective reactions and intention to attend future games. Affective experience and affective reaction were measured as spectator emotions using the newly-developed scale. As a result, it was observed that five affective experiences (worry, joy, surprise, pride, and envy) significantly influenced team loyalty, one affective reaction (joy) significantly influenced satisfaction, and three affective reactions (anger, envy, and pride) significantly influenced the intention to attend future games. These results show that emotional variables such as affective experiences and affective reactions might play an important role in explicating the mechanism of spectator attendance.
doi:10.5997/sposun.15.21 fatcat:dqb7x6iarraejdnwgsbcoa5wwi