Effects of Nitrogen and ABA Application on Basal and Distal Kernel Weight of Wheat

H Mohammadi, A Ahmadi, J Yang, F Moradi, Z Wang, A Abbasi, K Poustini
2013 J. Agr. Sci. Tech   unpublished
Individual grain weight of wheat kernels differs with their positions on a spike. Cultivation practices (such as fertilizer nitrogen and plant growth regulators application) can be used to improve weight of basal and distal kernels. For this purpose, two experiments based on randomized complete block design were carried out with three replications. The aim of this research was to study the mechanisms related to sink strength as well as the regulatory factors affecting sink activity. One
more » ... tivity. One cultivar of a facultative wheat, cv Yangmai15, was used. Treatments of the experiments included application of nitrogen (two levels) and plant growth regulators [abscisic acid (ABA) and Fluridone (inhibitor of ABA synthesis)] in basal and distal kernels, respectively. Results showed that nitrogen application increased grain yield and its components. Grain filling in basal kernels started earlier and its rate was higher than that of the distal kernels. Nitrogen fertilizer increased the individual kernel weight both in basal and distal kernels, and the rate of increment was higher than the control, even in distal kernels. The application of ABA resulted in increase in grain weight, whereas a considerable decrease in grain weight was observed in response to Fluridone compared to the control. Nitrogen application together with ABA application enhanced the activity of SuSase, AGPase, SSS, and SBE in basal and distal kernels and the increment in the activity was higher in distal kernels. It is concluded that simultaneous application of nitrogen and ABA enhanced grain weight by regulating the activity of key enzymes involved in starch synthesis.