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Virtual geographic environments (VGEs) are extensively used to explore the relationship between humans and environments. Crowd simulation provides a method for VGEs to represent crowd behaviors that are observed in the real world. The social force model (SFM) can simulate interactions among individuals, but it has not sufficiently accounted for inter-group and intra-group behaviors which are important components of crowd dynamics. We present the social group force model (SGFM), based on andoi:10.3390/ijgi7020079 fatcat:jxexrkxr3ffl7efqhkp7bofmq4