THE EFFECT OF GEOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS, ECOLOGICAL CHANGES AND HUMAN ACTIVITY IN EUPHRATES FLOOD-PLAIN (HADITHA REGION) ON VEGETATION CENOSIS DURING 11000 YEAR HISTORY ВЛИЯНИЕ ГЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИЙ И ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ИЗМЕНЕНИЙ И ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ НА СМЕНУ ВЕГЕТАТИВНЫХ ЦЕНОЗОВ В ДОЛИНЕ ЕВФРАТА В ТЕЧЕНИЕ 11000-ЛЕТНЕЙ ИСТОРИИ

Abed Al-Dulaimy, Thamer Al-Ameri
unpublished
/ Департамент геологии научно-исследовательского колледжа Багдадского университета Аннотация. На основании серии раскопок до глубины 5 м, выполненных в долине реки Евфрат близ г. Бравана выявлены более 8 слоев, сформированных в результате геологических смещений земной коры, длительных затоплений, наводнений, аллювиальных и пролювиальных наносов. Толщина слоев, их морфологический состав, содержащиеся в них археологические артефакты, видовой состав пыльцы культурных растений и споры грибов
more » ... споры грибов позволили определить их возраст, примерный состав ценозов и характер деятельности поселений. Изменение экологических условий и характера использования земель людьми, населявшими долину, приводило к последовательной трансформации вегетативных ценозов. Примерно 5000 лет назад поселения людей строили плотины, прокладывали каналы и использовали воды реки для орошения. Постепенное усиление засушливости и неконтролируемое использование воды для орошения приводило к развитию опустынивания и деградации используемых земель. Ключевые слова: геологические трансформации, экологические условия, затопляемая долина реки Евфрат, археологические артефакты, палинологический анализ. Abstract. The study of Euphrates Flood-Plain sediments near Brawana city, shows that there were many vegetation, climatic and archaeological evidences that point to several stages of old human living in that area. The palynological evidences shows that it was a livelihood before the great Noah Deluge during the period 11000 Y.B.P based on the grazing animals where the steppe plants dominated the area. As a result of the great deluge and climatic variations affected the region and the people that lived there had to move for search of a new way of living by trying to settle in the areas near the Euphrates River, where they found vast areas of land with fertile soils. The evidence of fruitful cultivation of different crops on those lands has been found in many places. The deep excavation up to the depth of 475-500 cm allowed to find pollen of field crops, such as wheat barley, corn and others species. At that time (9000-5000 Y.B.P) it was possible to grow these crops under warm climate and summer precipitation. These environmental conditions favored the ancient people to cultivate crops, rear animals and sustain their living area. Many archaeological ceramic pieces were found in the sample at depth 250 cm which confirm ability of the civilization to adopt to live in harsh conditions of desertification which had place 3500 Y.B.P. The old house artifacts and remains of rock dams built perpendicular to the stream direction which were found at the depth of 1 m under the earth surface, proved the use of different irrigation systems in the region during that period. This evidence is supported by findings of pollen and spores of harmful species of plants such as Compositae, Bongardia, what may be considered as irresponsible activities of the population in the region.
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