Ethnic differences in common carotid intima-media thickness, and the relationship to cardiovascular risk factors and peripheral arterial disease: the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening Study
QJM: Quarterly journal of medicine
Objective: To compare the mean and maximum common carotid intima-media thickness (CCIMT) in Blacks (Black Caribbean and Black African) and South Asians (People originating from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) in a population survey and make associations with established cardiovascular risk factors and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients and methods: A subset of 492 (293 South Asians and 199 Blacks) out of 572 participants aged !45 years recruited in a sub-study to the
... Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES) epidemiological study had mean and maximum CCIMT measured. A questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) and Intermittent Claudication assessments were made. Results: Black participants had greater mean but not maximum CCIMT when compared to South Asians overall (P = 0.022), in men (P = 0.04) and in women (P = 0.044). Black ethnicity was an independent predictor of CCIMT even after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (P < 0.05). After adjustment for age, ethnicity and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the presence of PAD remained independently predictive of mean (P = 0.019) and maximum (P = 0.012) CCIMT. Conclusions: Black ethnicity is related to greater mean and maximum CCIMT when compared to South Asians, even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The presence of PAD independently predicts mean and maximum CCIMT adjusting for ethnicity, age and cardiovascular risk factors.