Prevalence, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of asthma in 4621 Ghanaian adults: Evidence from Wave 2 of the World Health Organization's study on global AGEing and adult health

Justice Moses K. Aheto, Emilia A. Udofia, Eugene Kallson, George Mensah, Minicuci Nadia, Naidoo Nirmala, Somnath Chatterji, Paul Kowal, Richard Biritwum, Alfred E. Yawson, Florian Fischer
2020 PLoS ONE  
A previous multi-site study involving lower- and middle-income countries demonstrated that asthma in older adults is associated with long-term exposure to particulate matter, male gender and smoking. However, variations may occur within individual countries, which are relevant to inform health promoting policies as populations live longer. The present study estimates asthma prevalence and examines the sociodemographic characteristics and environmental determinants associated with asthma in
more » ... adults in Ghana. Methods This study utilised data from the nationally representative World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Ghana Wave 2. A final sample of 4621 individuals residing in 3970 households was used in analytical modelling. Factors associated with asthma were investigated using single level and multilevel binary logistic regression models. Results Asthma was reported by 102 (2.2%) respondents. Factors associated with asthma in the univariate model were: those aged 60–69 (OR = 5.22, 95% CI: 1.24, 21.95) and 70 or more (OR = 5.56, 95% CI: 1.33, 23.26) years, Ga-Adangbe dialect group (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.71), no religion (OR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.77, 7.28), having moderate (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.75) and bad/very bad (OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.58, 4.80) health state, and severe/extreme difficulty with self-care (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 9.88) and non-flush toilet facility (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.99). Factors independently associated with asthma in the adjusted models were: those aged 60–69 (OR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.03, 19.55) years, father with primary education or less (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.94), no religion (OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.41), and households with non-flush toilet facility (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.96). Significant residual household-level variation in asthma was observed. Over 40% of variance in asthma episodes could be attributable to residual household-level variations. Conclusion Individual as well as household factors were seen to influence the prevalence of asthma in this national survey. Clinical management of these patients in health facilities should consider household factors in addition to individual level factors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0243642 pmid:33296442 fatcat:54qpyryxh5aylkd5udiv2lfj4e