Global Analysis of Protein Palmitoylation in African Trypanosomes
Many eukaryotic proteins are posttranslationally modified by the esterification of cysteine thiols to long-chain fatty acids. This modification, protein palmitoylation, is catalyzed by a large family of palmitoyl acyltransferases that share an Asp-His-His-Cys Cys-rich domain but differ in their subcellular localizations and substrate specificities. In Trypanosoma brucei , the flagellated protozoan parasite that causes African sleeping sickness, protein palmitoylation has been observed for a few
... proteins, but the extent and consequences of this modification are largely unknown. We undertook the present study to investigate T. brucei protein palmitoylation at both the enzyme and substrate levels. Treatment of parasites with an inhibitor of total protein palmitoylation caused potent growth inhibition, yet there was no effect on growth by the separate, selective inhibition of each of the 12 individual T. brucei palmitoyl acyltransferases. This suggested either that T. brucei evolved functional redundancy for the palmitoylation of essential palmitoyl proteins or that palmitoylation of some proteins is catalyzed by a noncanonical transferase. To identify the palmitoylated proteins in T. brucei , we performed acyl biotin exchange chemistry on parasite lysates, followed by streptavidin chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry protein identification, and QSpec statistical analysis. A total of 124 palmitoylated proteins were identified, with an estimated false discovery rate of 1.0%. This palmitoyl proteome includes all of the known palmitoyl proteins in procyclic-stage T. brucei as well as several proteins whose homologues are palmitoylated in other organisms. Their sequences demonstrate the variety of substrate motifs that support palmitoylation, and their identities illustrate the range of cellular processes affected by palmitoylation in these important pathogens.