The influence of seasonality on fish life stages and residence in surf zones: a case of study in a tropical region
Resident fishes and their seasonal use of a surf zone were characterized and identified in the Jaguaribe beach, located on the Island of Itamaracá, state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Monthly towings (March 2006 to February 2007) with a beach seine net (20 m long, 1.5 m high, 5 mm mesh size) in different moon phases and periods of the day (day and night) were conducted. A total of 6,407 specimens, 35 families and 90 species were recorded. Seven species were considered as annual residents
... s annual residents (Anchoa tricolor, Anchoviella lepidentostole, Bairdiella ronchus,Larimus breviceps, Lycengraulis grossidens, Polydactylus virginicus and Pomadasys corvinaeformis), three resident throughout the dry season (Conodon nobilis, Lile piquitinga andMenticirrhus americanus) and two resident species in the rainy period (Cathorops spixii and Nicholsina usta). Among these 12 species, concerning their life cycle, three of them (A. tricolor, C. spixii and L. piquitinga) showed only adult individuals, whileB. ronchus, M. americanus and N. usta were the only species represented exclusively by juvenile in both seasons. The surf zone of Jaguaribe beach presents a considerable ecological importance as it encompasses a great diversity of fishes, including species considered rare for this ecosystem, as well as species which are resident annually or seasonally. The distribution pattern of species found in this study shows that the ichthyofauna of the surf zone in Jaguaribe beach is rich, mainly dominated by small-sized individuals including juveniles of several species, with the presence of some species most commonly found in neighboring environments, such as seagrass beds, estuaries and reefs. As an integrated component of interconnected environments in coastal areas of Pernambuco, and owing to its function in the life cycle of coastal fishes, the surf zone of Jaguartibe beach presents an apparently common ecological pattern for tropical sandy beaches.