Factors Influencing the Development of Urothelial Lesions and Breast Tuberculosis among Pulmonary TB Patients Undergoing Directly Observed Therapy in Abeokuta and Ilishan Metropolises, Ogun State, Nigeria
Immunology and Infectious Diseases
This questionnaire-laboratory based cohort study evaluated some socio-demographic characteristics and urothelial integrity among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. A total of 49 confirmed TB positive patients (males= 17 and females =32) within the age range of 10-79 years were recruited from Abeokuta and Ilishan metropolises, and divided into 2 groups: patients on anti-TB drugs and those not on anti-TB drugs. Smears made using cell deposits from fresh clean catch urine samples were stained
... ples were stained by the Papanicolaou and Giemsa techniques. In this study, high frequency of TB infection was associated with gender, ethnicity, residency, marital status, occupation, and income status. The prevalence of urothelial lesion and breast tuberculosis was 24.5% and 8.2%, respectively with high frequency among patients within the age range of 30 to 39 years. A significant difference between patients on anti-TB drugs and those not on anti-TB drugs was observed in relation to low grade urothelial lesions (p<0.05). Subgroup comparison showed that approximately 47%, 45%, 34% and 17% of the urothelial lesions were associated with lack of TB therapy, HIV and TB co-infection, females and breast tuberculosis, respectively when compared with other subgroups. Interestingly, polyomavirus (45%), HIV (43%) fungal infections (39%), parasites (24%) and crystals (18%) were associated with the urothelial lesions (p<0.05). This study suggests that lack of TB therapy, age, female-sex and some co-infections may increase the risk of urothelial lesions and breast tuberculosis. Thus, female patients living in TB endemic areas and within the age range of 30 to 59 years should be screened pre-and post treatment.