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Coin-tossing protocols are protocols that generate a random bit with uniform distribution. These protocols are used as a building block in many cryptographic protocols. Cleve [STOC 1986] has shown that if at least half of the parties can be malicious, then, in any r-round coin-tossing protocol, the malicious parties can cause a bias of Ω(1/r) to the bit that the honest parties output. However, for more than two decades the best known protocols had bias t √ r , where t is the number of corrupteddoi:10.1007/s00145-013-9168-3 fatcat:2s5cqxswkzazfhgsevmmb2hwlm