N-Palmitoylethanolamide-Oxazoline Protects against Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Injury in Diabetic Rats by Regulating the SIRT1 Pathway
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Diabetes causes various macrovascular and microvascular alterations, often culminating in major clinical complications (first of all, stroke) that lack an effective therapeutic intervention. N-palmitoylethanolamide-oxazoline (PEA-OXA) possesses anti-inflammatory and potent neuroprotective effects. Although recent studies have explained the neuroprotective properties of PEA-OXA, nothing is known about its effects in treating cerebral ischemia. Methods: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by
... was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in the right hemisphere. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was provided by introducing a 4–0 nylon monofilament (Ethilon; Johnson & Johnson, Somerville, NJ, USA) precoated with silicone via the external carotid artery into the internal carotid artery to occlude the MCA. Results: A neurological severity score and infarct volumes were carried out to assess the neuroprotective effects of PEA-OXA. Moreover, we observed PEA-OXA-mediated improvements in tissue histology shown by a reduction in lesion size and an improvement in apoptosis level (assessed by caspases, Bax, and Bcl-2 modulation and a TUNEL assay), which further supported the efficacy of PEA-OXA therapy. We also found that PEA-OXA treatment was able to reduce mast cell degranulation and reduce the MCAo-induced expression of NF-κB pathways, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. Conclusions: based on these findings, we propose that PEA-OXA could be useful in decreasing the risk of impairment or improving function in ischemia/reperfusion brain injury-related disorders.