The effects of pathogen challenges on the performance of naïve and immune animals: the problem of prediction

F. B. Sandberg, G. C. Emmans, I. Kyriazakis
2007 Animal  
Predictive frameworks for performance under both physical and social stressors are available, but no general framework yet exists for predicting the performance of animals exposed to pathogens. The aim of this paper was to identify the key problems that would need to be solved to achieve this. Challenges of a range of hosts by a range of pathogens were reviewed to consider reductions in growth beyond those associated with reductions in voluntary food intake (VFI). Pair-feeding and marginal
more » ... nse studies identified the extent and mechanisms of how further reductions in growth occur beyond those caused by reduced VFI. Further reductions in growth depended on the pathogen, the host and the dose and were time dependent. In some instances the reduction in VFI fully explained the reduction in growth. Marginal response experiments showed increased maintenance requirements during exposure to pathogens, but these were different for specific amino acids. There were no clear effects on marginal efficiency. Innate immune functions, repair of damaged tissue and expression of acquired immunity caused significant but variable increases in protein (amino acid) requirements. More resistant genotypes had greater requirements for mounting immune responses. The partitioning of protein (amino acids) was found to be different during pathogen challenges. Prediction of the requirements and partitioning of amino acids between growth and immune functions appears to be a crucial problem to solve in order to predict performance during pathogen challenges of different kinds and doses. The problems of accounting for reductions in performance during pathogen challenges that are described here provide a useful starting point for future modelling and experimental solutions.
doi:10.1017/s175173110765784x pmid:22444211 fatcat:2mhb6mgfnzgrdjlkmgzxlegrxy