In-line check valves for water hammer control

Bryan W. Karney, Angus R. Simpson
2007 Journal of Hydraulic Research  
This study systematically explores the relatively neglected surge protection strategy of installing an in-line check valve at an intermediate point within a pipeline. The in-line check valve is selected to isolate part of the system from a high-pressure source of fluid subsequent to a low-pressure water hammer event, in this way greatly reducing or eliminating any return surge. A typical application involving a pipeline with an isolated high point within its profile is numerically investigated.
more » ... cally investigated. The low pressure transient event first opens an air-vacuum valve at the line's high point. However, the violent expulsion and collapse of this air cavity is thereafter avoided, and thus the resulting water hammer pressures dramatically reduced, by an in-line check valve installed between the high point and the downstream reservoir. The effectiveness of the surge protection is shown to depend on hydraulics and topology of the line (particularly the position of the high point), on the position of the check valve, and on both the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the check valve. Although the check valve only protects the lower (normally upstream) portion of the line from the return surge, the transient response of the remainder of the line can sometimes be improved through installing either a bypass around the check valve or by perforating the check valve's working element. The role and function of any pressure-relieving function at the valve is also numerically investigated and is shown to be a compromise between upstream and downstream protection.
doi:10.1080/00221686.2007.9521790 fatcat:uq66fvlpcbhgbfjazlevoz72lu