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Federated learning is an emerging privacy-preserving AI technique where clients (i.e., organisations or devices) train models locally and formulate a global model based on the local model updates without transferring local data externally. However, federated learning systems struggle to achieve trustworthiness and embody responsible AI principles. In particular, federated learning systems face accountability and fairness challenges due to multi-stakeholder involvement and heterogeneity inarXiv:2108.06912v2 fatcat:y2qrpahwtjh3zjteqveduo3puq