Deciphering the Therapeutic Resistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Carmelo Gurnari, Simona Pagliuca, Valeria Visconte
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal hematopoietic disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation, lack of cellular differentiation, and infiltration of bone marrow, peripheral blood, or other organs. Induction failure and in general resistance to chemotherapeutic agents represent a hindrance for improving survival outcomes in AML. Here, we review the latest insights in AML biology concerning refractoriness to therapies with a specific focus on cytarabine and daunorubicin which still
more » ... sent milestones agents for inducing therapeutic response and disease eradication. However, failure to achieve complete remission in AML is still high especially in elderly patients (40–60% in patients >65 years old). Several lines of basic and clinical research have been employed to improve the achievement of complete remission. These lines of research include molecular targeted therapy and more recently immunotherapy. In terms of molecular targeted therapies, specific attention is given to DNMT3A and TP53 mutant AML by reviewing the mechanisms underlying epigenetic therapies' (e.g., hypomethylating agents) resistance and providing critical points and hints for possible future therapies overcoming AML refractoriness.
doi:10.3390/ijms21228505 pmid:33198085 fatcat:r4lypbcgdrfi5exlo7obydbjqy