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Active inference is a normative framework for explaining behaviour under the free energy principle -- a theory of self-organisation originating in neuroscience. It specifies neuronal dynamics for state-estimation in terms of a descent on (variational) free energy -- a measure of the fit between an internal (generative) model and sensory observations. The free energy gradient is a prediction error -- plausibly encoded in the average membrane potentials of neuronal populations. Conversely, thearXiv:2001.08028v2 fatcat:7bgv56tvo5ca5kwufe4kdxnsqq