Adaptive Path Energy Conserving Routing in MANETs

Hasnaa Moustafa, Houda Labiod
2003 Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks  
In this paper, we present a full performance analysis of an energy conserving routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks, named energy conserving dynamic source routing (EC-DSR) protocol. Our performance analysis is carried out through investigating the impact of different mobility models on the protocol's performance. EC-DSR attempts to minimize both routing and storage overhead, providing robustness towards host mobility and adaptability to wireless channel fluctuations. The innovation in our
more » ... scheme is to handle nodes' energy consumption increasing the durability of the power resource, and therefore the lifetime of the nodes and the whole MANET. Further, it handles network state related constraints such as links' availability and paths' quality. Indeed, grouped motion behavior is very likely to occur in an ad hoc network, as in disaster recovery or military deployment where collaborative behavior among some nodes is quite normal. To this end, we use two different group mobility models in our performance analysis, named Pursue and Reference Point Group Mobility (RPGM) models. We analyze and evaluate the impact of these two models on EC-DSR performance, comparing it to that of Random Way Point (RWP) model. We carry out our performance evaluation under realistic conditions, including realistic movements of mobile nodes, in the form of different mobility models. Our goal is to illustrate how the performance criteria of our protocol can be highly affected by the mobility behavior of nodes. I. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION With the emergence of the rapid deployment of independent mobile users, there is a need for broadband wireless communication devices. Significant examples include military networks, communication for emergency/rescue operations, and disaster relief efforts. Such network scenarios could not rely on centralized connectivity and are conceived as applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). A MANET [1] is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links, operating with limited power and storage capacity. The network is decentralized and the nodes themselves execute, on the fly, the topology construction. Nodes in the network cooperate to forward packets; packets may traverse multiple consecutive wireless links to reach their destinations. MANETs applications range from small networks that are constrained by power sources, to large-scale highly dynamic networks. The design of routing protocols in these networks is a complex issue. While the shortest path from a source to a destination in a static network is usually the optimal route, this idea is not easily extended to MANETs. Factors such as variable wireless links quality, propagation path loss, fading, power expended, and topological changes become relative issues. The routing protocol should be able to adaptively construct the routing paths alleviating any of these effects. Actually, MANET specific features pose significant challenges to solve this classical network problem. Routing protocols should be energy efficient, reacting dynamically to the changing topology and the radio environment characteristics. They should maintain and construct durable routes without generating excessive control overhead or consuming excessive energy. Since nodes are battery operated, they need to be energy conserving in order to maximize their battery life. This introduces a trade-off between link maintenance in a highly unreliable networks and power conservation for users with little battery power. Until now, no standard has been adopted for routing protocols and many critical issues are unsolved. Various routing mechanisms have been proposed. These protocols can be generally categorized by the routing strategy, where various metrics are used to determine optimal paths. The most common metric is the shortest hop applied in DSR [2] (Dynamic Source Routing), DSDV [3] (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector), TORA [4] (Temporally-ordered Routing Algorithm), and WRP [4] (Wireless Routing Protocol). Nevertheless, not necessarily optimal routes are obtained for the possible different network configurations. Some protocols, however, can use shortest delay as the metric, although longer paths 324 MOUSTAFA AND LABIOD
doi:10.1142/9789812791146_0022 dblp:conf/mwcn/MoustafaL03 fatcat:uyw2bmpnz5a6xdud3r4kepcfly