The 4-Year Course of Tic Disorders in Boys With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Thomas Spencer, Joseph Biederman, Barbara Coffey, Daniel Geller, Timothy Wilens, Stephen Faraone
1999 Archives of General Psychiatry  
Despite long-standing clinical concerns, relatively little is known about the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders. Therefore, we examined tic disorders in an ongoing prospective follow-up study of male subjects with ADHD, a sample unselected for any comorbid disorder. Methods: One hundred twenty-eight male children and adolescents with ADHD and 110 male controls were comprehensively evaluated at baseline and 4 years later. We characterized tic
more » ... sorders along with a wide range of neuropsychiatric correlates, including other comorbid disorders and indices of psychosocial function in multiple domains (school, cognitive, social, and family). Results: Compared with controls, subjects with ADHD showed more tic disorders at baseline and more new on-ARCH GEN PSYCHIATRY/ VOL 56, SEP 1999 842
doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.9.842 pmid:12884890 fatcat:t3wlekhgcvdqzg5plylvgqb5h4