Comparison of the Nutrition Transition Among Adolescents Ages 13–18 years in Six States in India: The Multicenter Study

Nida Shaikh, Smruti Vispute, Anuradha Khadilkar
2021 Current Developments in Nutrition  
Objectives To compare the nutrition transition among adolescents ages 13–18 years across six states in India. Methods A validated 10-item apriori index-based Nutrition Transition Diet Score (NTDS; range 0–10) including seven food groups: packaged foods (score 1 ≥ 30 g/d), fried foods (score 1 ≥ 30 g/d), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) (score 1 > 0 g/d), dairy (score 1 ≥ 500 ml/d), fruits and vegetables (score 1 ≤ 400 g/d), bread (score 1 ≥ 25 g/d), and added sugar (score 1 ≥ 30 g/d), and
more » ... e nutrients, namely total fat (score 1 ≥ 30% of total calories), saturated fat (score 1 ≥ 10% of total calories), and sodium (score 1 ≥ 2300 mg/d), was applied to responses averaged from two 24-hour diet recalls from 937 adolescents across six Indian states [Punjab (north), Tamil Nadu (south), Maharashtra (west), Gujarat (west), Chhattisgarh (central), and Assam (north east)]. We calculated and compared differences in the average NTDS, proportions of adolescents that met the criteria for each NTDS component and daily food and nutrient intake across states using Students t tests, chi-sq tests, and ANOVA. Results The NTDS (mean ± SD) was 2.6 ± 1.4 and was highest among adolescents in Maharashtra (3.1 ± 1.6) and lowest in Gujarat (2.1 ± 1.0) (p < .0001). Across regions, while the highest proportion of adolescents in the south and west (Maharashtra) each met the criteria for 3 of 10 components of the NTDS [south –saturated fat (29%), sodium (19%), SSB (4%); west –bread (62%), dairy (11%), added sugar (29%)], adolescents in Gujarat comprised the lowest proportions that met the criteria for six of 10 NTDS components [packaged foods (0%), SSB (0%), dairy (1%), sodium (2%), fat (26%), and fried foods (30%)]. Daily energy and macronutrient intake varied across regions; diets comprised 59–66% carbohydrates, 9–11% protein, and 24–31% fat. Adolescents in the south had the highest daily intake of energy (2045 ± 544 kcal/d) and macronutrients (314 ± 85 g/d carbohydrates, 54 ± 17 g/d protein, 64 ± 23 g/d fat) and those in the west (Maharashtra) had the second highest intake of energy (1810 ± 633 kcal/d), protein (46 ± 18 g/d), and fat (59 ± 26 g/d). Conclusions The nutrition transition is in early stages but most advanced among adolescents in western and southern India. Efforts are needed to study the nutrition transition among Indian adolescents over time. Funding Sources University Grants Commission, Government of India.
doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab045_068 fatcat:dj2cz35r25hp3a267bg5texvfy