Aroma Investigation of New and Standard Apple Varieties Grown at Two Altitudes Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Combined with Sensory Analysis
The aromatic profile of apples constitutes important information for the characterization and description of local products. Apple flavor is determined by perception in mouth and aroma; while the first is mainly defined by sugars and organic acids, aroma is a complex mixture of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) whose composition is often specific to the variety. Headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) allows for the detection
... for the detection of detailed information of volatile constituents. In this study, eleven apple varieties (Braeburn, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Coop 39-Crimson Crisp®, Dalinette-Choupette®, Fujion, CIV323-Isaaq®, Coop43-Juliet®, SQ159-Natyra®, UEB32642-Opal®) grown in two pedoclimatic locations at different altitudes in South Tyrol (Italy) (ca. 225 m and ca. 650 m a.s.l.) were investigated. Thirty-eight VOCs were identified and combined with sensory analysis results (from 11 trained panelist) to characterize the aroma of new and standard apple varieties with a special focus on pedoclimatic location differences. The study shows strong diversification of the varieties based on their VOC profiles and sensory attributes, as expected. Moreover, investigating how the pedoclimatic location at different altitudes can influence the apple aroma profile, we identified twelve VOCs involved in these differences and provided a deeper investigation on how different altitudes can influence the apple aroma composition and perceptions combining the analytical and sensory parameters.