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Metallic electromigration can be defined as the movement of metallic material, usually through or across a nonmetallic medium, under the influence of an electrical field. As such, it has assumed increasing importance in the performance and reliability of packaging systems that incorporate electrical contacts. The characteristics of the different electromigration processes will be discussed, including descriptions of related phenomena. The primary emphasis will be on electrolytically controlleddoi:10.1109/tchmt.1988.1134880 fatcat:dfs5icnwnnhzzaazipjnqpl42m