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In a complex environment, animals learn from their responses to stimuli and events. Appropriate response to reward and punishment can promote survival, reproduction and increase evolutionary fitness. Interestingly, the neural processes underlying these responses are remarkably similar across phyla. In all species, dopamine is central to encoding reward and directing motivated behaviors, however, a comprehensive understanding of how circuits encode reward and direct motivated behaviors is stilldoi:10.1080/01677063.2016.1180385 pmid:27328845 pmcid:PMC4926782 fatcat:7hmttjpjcnhthnjw24lkrrlbmu