Evaluation of pathology and environmental variables contributing to hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome of Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome (HPNS) severely impacts the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) industry. However, little knowledge of the aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease causes significant difficulties in its prevention and control. In this study, we conducted a pathological analysis of HPNS through time-integrated large-volume sampling, to clarify the disease characteristics and mechanism of HPNS-afflicted crabs; besides, animal models were constructed to verify the
... verify the pathological diagnosis. The results showed that the hepatopancreas was the principal target organ of HPNS; multiple correspondence analysis revealed that the main histopathological characteristics included non-interstitial atrophic hepatopathy diseases such as hepatic tubule atrophy, dilated hepatic tubules, and hepatic tubule necrosis. Additionally, the muscles also showed signs of disease, including myofibre atrophy, necrosis, and inflammation. Ultrastructural studies showed prominent apoptosis and autophagy-like alterations in the hepatopancreas of HPNS-afflicted crabs. Further, the establishment of animal models revealed that the double variate stimulation of environmental variables such as abamectin/sewage with nutrition deficiency could result in HPNS-similar lesions. Based on these studies, we concluded that HPNS is a chronic hepatopancreas-initiated energy-consumed disease with a low likelihood of pathogen but a high probability of environment and nutrition.