Whole-system worst-case energy-consumption analysis for energy-constrained real-time systems
Although internal devices (e.g., memory, timers) and external devices (e.g., transceivers, sensors) significantly contribute to the energy consumption of an embedded real-time system, their impact on the worst-case response energy consumption (WCRE) of tasks is usually not adequately taken into account. Most WCRE analysis techniques, for example, only focus on the processor and therefore do not consider the energy consumption of other hardware units. Apart from that, the typical approach for
... ling with devices is to assume that all of them are always activated, which leads to high WCRE overestimations in the general case where a system switches off the devices that are currently not needed in order to minimize energy consumption. In this paper, we present SysWCEC, an approach that addresses these problems by enabling static WCRE analysis for entire real-time systems, including internal as well as external devices. For this purpose, SysWCEC introduces a novel abstraction, the power-state-transition graph, which contains information about the worst-case energy consumption of all possible execution paths. To construct the graph, SysWCEC decomposes the analyzed real-time system into blocks during which the set of active devices in the system does not change and is consequently able to precisely handle devices being dynamically activated or deactivated.