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An intuitive shape parameterization and control technique suitable for high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization is presented. It relies on the principles of free-form and axial deformation, enabling thorough exploration of the design space while keeping the number of design variables manageable. C p coefficient of pressure e span efficiency h wing vertical extent H projective mapping J aerodynamic functional (L/q ∞ or D/q ∞ ) L, D lift and drag L Lagrangiandoi:10.2514/1.j053575 fatcat:zwstwntjofbjtkpzly5onrdddy