Atomic scale annealing effects on InxGa1−xNyAs1−ystudied by TEM three-beam imaging
Physical Review B
A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method for simultaneous measurement of indium and nitrogen content in InGaNAs at atomic scale is introduced, tested, and applied to investigate thermal annealing effects on structural properties. Our technique is based on the extraction of strain and chemical sensitive contrast from a single three-beam TEM lattice fringe image by subsequent decomposition into 220 and 020 two-beam fringe images, being free of nonlinear imaging artifacts. From comparison
... . From comparison with simulated strain and 020 fringe amplitude, concentration maps and profiles are derived. For this purpose, the Bloch-wave approach is used with structure factors adapted for chemical bonding, static atomic displacements, as well as diffuse losses due to static and thermal disorder. Application to In 0.28 Ga 0.72 N 0.025 As 0.975 before and after annealing at 670 • C yields dissolution of In-rich islands and N-rich clusters and formation of a quantum well with nearly constant thickness and homogeneous elemental distributions, resulting in symmetric profiles along growth direction. To verify that these structural transitions are indeed correlated with typically observed changes of optical properties during thermal annealing, photoluminescence spectra are presented, revealing an increase in intensity by a factor of 20 and a strong blue shift of 60 meV.