The effect of midwifery led counseling based on Gamble's approach on childbirth fear and self-efficacy in nulligravida women
Background: Studies show that childbirth fear is a common problem among Iranian women. Therefore, most Iranian women prefer caesarean section for giving birth. This study investigated the effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention by midwives (birth emotions - looking to improve expectant fear (BELIEF)) on decreasing childbirth fear and self-efficacy among first-time pregnant women who were afraid of giving birth.Methods: A number of 80 pregnant women participated in the study. They had
... eceived a score of ≥ 66 on the Wijma delivery expectancy/experience questionnaire. They were randomly assigned into two groups: intervention (n = 40) and control groups (n = 40). The intervention group received two face-to-face counseling sessions based on the BELEF protocol in the 24th and 34th weeks of pregnancy. Between these two sessions, it also received eight telephone-counseling sessions once a week. The control group only received the prenatal routine care. The outcome measures were childbirth fear, childbirth self-efficacy, and childbirth preference. Results: The intervention group showed significantly more reduction in childbirth fear and more increase in childbirth self-efficacy compared to the control group. In addition, more women in the intervention group reported that they preferred to give normal vaginal birth than women in the control group.Conclusion: The BELIEF protocol could be an effective approach in reducing childbirth fear and increasing childbirth self-efficacy among first-time pregnant women who are afraid of giving birth. Trial registration number: IRCT20101219005417N3, Date of Registration: 19-12-2018.