Survey of Aerosol Delivery Techniques to Spontaneously Breathing Tracheostomized Children

L Denise Willis, Ariel Berlinski
2012 Respiratory care  
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic inhaled aerosols are often delivered to spontaneously breathing tracheostomized children. Although aerosol delivery can be affected by several factors, no recommendations for device/drug formulation choice are available. We hypothesized that practice modalities will vary among different institutions. METHODS: The respiratory care departments in institutions in the United States that train pediatric pulmonologists were surveyed regarding their practices of delivering
more » ... of delivering aerosols to spontaneously breathing tracheostomized children. Characteristics of the institution; use of metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), nebulizers, and dry powder inhalers; use of a resuscitation bag to aid aerosol delivery (assisted); types of medication used; and factors affecting choice of delivery method were recorded. RESULTS: Of the invited institutions, 81% (38/47) participated, with 68% of them being freestanding children's hospitals. MDIs were used by 92% of the institutions surveyed, with similar use of unassisted (32%, with 83% of them using spacers), assisted (34%, with 100% of them using non-valved spacers), and both techniques (34%). Nebulizers were used by 97% of the institutions surveyed, with all using unassisted and 32% also using assisted technique. Tracheostomy aerosol mask was the most commonly used interface (89%). Assisted technique for either MDI or nebulizer was used by 68% of the institutions surveyed, with similar use of flow-inflating bag, self-inflating bag, and both devices. Types of inhaled medications utilized by surveyed institutions included aerosolized antibiotics (82%), corticosteroids (100%), short-acting ␤ agonists (100%), combination therapy (32%), and mucolytics (84%). Dry powders were not used. Patient cooperation was the most frequent and single most important factor influencing the choice of delivery method. CONCLUSIONS: A wide variation in practice of delivering aerosols to spontaneously breathing tracheostomized children was noted. In-vivo and in-vitro studies are needed to support clinical recommendations.
doi:10.4187/respcare.01518 pmid:22348743 fatcat:4jtrqn63cbd37k3dvbsrnpwiyq