Dietary Patterns Based on Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Kidney Function Decline in the General Population: The Lifelines Cohort Study
No specific dietary patterns have been established that are linked with loss of kidney function. We aimed to identify an estimated glomerular filtration rate-based dietary pattern (eGFR-DP) and to evaluate its association with eGFR decline and chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence in the general population. We included 78,335 participants from the Lifelines cohort in the Northern Netherlands. All participants had an eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline and completed a second visit five years
... visit five years later. The eGFR-DP was constructed at baseline using a 110-item food frequency questionnaire by reduced rank regression, stratified by sex. Logistic regression was performed to evaluated the association between the eGFR-DP score and either a ≥20% eGFR decline or incident CKD. Among women, eGFR-DP were characterized by high consumption of egg, cheese, and legumes and low consumption of sweets, white meat, and commercially prepared dishes. In men, eGFR-DP were characterized by high consumption of cheese, bread, milk, fruits, vegetables, and beer and low consumption of white and red meat. A higher eGFR-DP score was associated with a lower risk of a ≥20% eGFR decline (OR 4th vs. 1st quartile, women: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.73–0.87]; men: 0.67 [0.59–0.76]). The association between the eGFR-DP score and CKD incidence was lost upon adjustment for baseline eGFR. Our results provide support for dietary interventions to prevent kidney function decline in the general population.