Obesity and Eating Disorders
Psychiatric Clinics of North America
An overview of evidence for a causal relation between iron deficiency during development and deficits in cognitive or behavioral function Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 931-945. Commentary Norlin J Benevenga Consideration of betaine and one-carbon sources of N 5methyltetrahydrofolate for use in homocystinuria and neural tube defects Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 946-949. Effect of the melanocortin-3 receptor C17A and G241A variants on weight loss in childhood obesity Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 950-953. Effect
... f soy protein from differently processed products on cardiovascular disease risk factors and vascular endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 960-966. Constitutional thinness and lean anorexia nervosa display opposite concentrations of peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin, and leptin Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 967-971. Premenopausal overweight women do not lose bone during moderate weight loss with adequate or higher calcium intake Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 972-980. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 981-988. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 989-995. 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ABSTRACT This review, intended for a broad scientific readership, summarizes evidence relevant to whether a causal relation exists between dietary iron deficiency with (IDѿA) or without (ID-A) anemia during development and deficits in subsequent cognitive or behavioral performance. An overview of expert opinion and major evidence in humans and animals is provided. Cognitive and behavioral effects observed in humans with ID-A and in animals with IDȀA are provided in tables. The degree to which 5 conditions of causality are satisfied and whether deleterious effects of ID-A might be expected to occur are discussed. On the basis of the existing literature, our major conclusions are as follows. Although most of the 5 conditions of causality (association, plausible biological mechanisms, dose response, ability to manipulate the effect, and specificity of cause and effect) are partially satisfied in humans, animals, or both, a causal connection has not been clearly established. In animals, deficits in motor activity are consistently associated with severe IDѿA, but adverse effects on performance in tests that target cognitive function have not been clearly shown. Resistance to iron treatment was observed in most trials of children 2 y of age with IDѿA, but not in older children. Similar observations were made in rodents when IDѿA occurred before rather than after weaning. In children 2 y of age and in adolescents with ID-A, evidence suggests cognitive or behavioral deficits; however, the surprisingly small number of studies conducted in either humans or animals prevents a thorough assessment. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:931-45.