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This study designs an active equilibrium control strategy based on model predictive control (MPC) for series battery packs. To shorten equalisation time and reduce unnecessary energy consumption, bidirectional active equalisation is modelled and analysed, and the model predictive control algorithm is then applied to the established state space equation. The optimisation problem that minimises the equilibrium time is transformed to a linear programming form in each cycle. By solving the lineardoi:10.3390/en11113220 fatcat:acogjd7wnraxjbus4qzqemwvdy