Growth differentiation factor-15 as candidate predictor for mortality in adults with pulmonary hypertension

Laurie W Geenen, Vivan J M Baggen, Robert M Kauling, Thomas Koudstaal, Karin A Boomars, Eric Boersma, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Annemien E van den Bosch
2019 Heart  
ObjectiveDespite its predictive value for mortality in various diseases, the relevance of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) as prognostic biomarker in pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains unclear. This study investigated the association between GDF-15 and outcomes in adults with PH.MethodsThis is a single-centre prospective observational cohort study. All adults with PH were included at the day of their diagnostic right heart catheterisation between 2012 and 2016. PH due to left heart
more » ... ease was excluded. Venous blood sampling was performed and included GDF-15 and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measurements. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis were used to investigate the association between GDF-15 and a composite endpoint of death or lung transplantation. We adjusted for age and NT-proBNP in multivariable analysis. Reference values were established by GDF-15 measurements in healthy controls.ResultsGDF-15 was measured in 103 patients (median age 59.2 years, 65% women, 51% pulmonary arterial hypertension). GDF-15 was elevated in 76 patients (74%). After a median follow-up of 3.4 (IQR 2.3–4.6) years, 32 patients (31.1%) reached the primary endpoint. Event-free survival 2 years after diagnosis was 100% in patients with normal GDF-15 versus 72.4% in patients with elevated GDF-15 (p=0.007). A significant association was found between GDF-15 and the primary endpoint (HR per twofold higher value 1.77, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.27, p<0.001), also after adjustment for age and NT-proBNP (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.94, p=0.038).ConclusionsHigh GDF-15 levels are associated with an increased risk of death or transplant in adults with PH, independent of age and NT-proBNP. As non-specific biomarker, GDF-15 could particularly be useful to detect low-risk patients.
doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2019-315111 pmid:31492701 fatcat:v3px4xmua5gy7juf23dsdg4woi