Impact of industrial wastewater on water and fish quality of Nile River in Kafr El-Zayat, Egypt
Benha veterinary medical journal
In Egypt, Rosetta branch of the Nile River is impacted by several industrial effluents at Kafr El-Zayat City, which potentially affect and deteriorate its quality. To study the impact of these effluents on aquatic environment of the Rosetta branch, a total of 108 water samples and 36 fish samples were collected during the spring and autumn 2010 from 9 different regions along the branch at Kafr El-Zayat industrial area. Chemical analyses of water samples showed seasonal variation of pH, Pb, Cd,
... nd NH3 values. Cu concentrations in the water were below the maximum permissible limit, however, Pb, Cd, Hg, P, NH3, and S exceeded the permissible limit. The distribution of these parameters at the area under investigations are strongly affected by the industrial effluents produced from El-Mobidat, El-Malyia and Salt and Soda companies which directly discharge industrial effluents at this area without any treatment. The presence of high levels of Pb, Hg, NH3, and S in the fish muscles were in relation to water pollution in the studied area. The bacteriological analyses showed that TBC ranged from 1.9 x10 3 to 5×10 5 cfu/ml for water and from 3×10 5 to 5×10 5 cfu/g for fish flesh. Importantly, the water and fish samples tested were positive for Salmonella and negative for E. Coli. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the Nile River at Kafr El-Zayat industrial area is heavily polluted and consequently harmful effects to the aquatic environment and to the quality of the water are established. So, treatment and safe disposal of different industrial wastes is recommended.