Charging and Discharging of Electric Vehicles in Power Systems: An Updated and Detailed Review of Methods, Control Structures, Objectives, and Optimization Methodologies

Saleh Aghajan-Eshkevari, Sasan Azad, Morteza Nazari-Heris, Mohammad Taghi Ameli, Somayeh Asadi
2022 Sustainability  
As a result of fossil fuel prices and the associated environmental issues, electric vehicles (EVs) have become a substitute for fossil-fueled vehicles. Their use is expected to grow significantly in a short period of time. However, the widespread use of EVs and their large-scale integration into the power system will pose numerous operational and technical challenges. To avoid these issues, it is essential to manage the charging and discharging of EVs. EVs may also be considered sources of
more » ... rsed energy storage and used to increase the network's operation and efficiency with reasonable charge and discharge management. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and updated review of control structures of EVs in charging stations, objectives of EV management in power systems, and optimization methodologies for charge and discharge management of EVs in energy systems. The goals that can be accomplished with efficient charge and discharge management of EVs are divided into three groups in this paper (network activity, economic, and environmental goals) and analyzed in detail. Additionally, the biggest obstacles that EVs face when participating in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) applications are examined in this paper.
doi:10.3390/su14042137 fatcat:44gwrv2cbverzc2fhzmsda5e7e