Emerging IoT domains, current standings and open research challenges: a review

Omer Ali, Mohamad Khairi Ishak, Muhammad Kamran Liaquat Bhatti
2021 PeerJ Computer Science  
Over the last decade, the Internet of Things (IoT) domain has grown dramatically, from ultra-low-power hardware design to cloud-based solutions, and now, with the rise of 5G technology, a new horizon for edge computing on IoT devices will be introduced. A wide range of communication technologies has steadily evolved in recent years, representing a diverse range of domain areas and communication specifications. Because of the heterogeneity of technology and interconnectivity, the true
more » ... of the IoT ecosystem is currently hampered by multiple dynamic integration challenges. In this context, several emerging IoT domains necessitate a complete re-modeling, design, and standardisation from the ground up in order to achieve seamless IoT ecosystem integration. The Internet of Nano-Things (IoNT), Internet of Space-Things (IoST), Internet of Underwater-Things (IoUT) and Social Internet of Things (SIoT) are investigated in this paper with a broad future scope based on their integration and ability to source other IoT domains by highlighting their application domains, state-of-the-art research, and open challenges. To the best of our knowledge, there is little or no information on the current state of these ecosystems, which is the motivating factor behind this article. Finally, the paper summarises the integration of these ecosystems with current IoT domains and suggests future directions for overcoming the challenges.
doi:10.7717/peerj-cs.659 pmid:34541307 pmcid:PMC8409334 fatcat:k5u66cvvmbg4reswpcczhklbn4