Physical and Chemical Properties of GdN: A Critical Comparison between Single Crystals and Thin Films, Theory and Experiment

Peter Wachter
2016 Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry  
Since about 10 years, there is a controversy about physics and chemistry of GdN between stoichiometric (tested) large single crystals and off-stoichiometric thin films. GdN single crystals are antiferromagnetic for applied magnetic fields of only 10 Oe, become ferromagnetic for excess electrons and larger magnetic fields. They are semimetallic. Thin films are ferromagnetic and semiconductors. Over the time, many experiments have been performed on both systems and the physics in each system is
more » ... in each system is consistent. Band structure computations either yield ferromagnetic semimetals or ferromagnetic semiconducting thin films. There seems to be two incompatible worlds, those of single crystals and those of thin films. In the present work, the author compares directly the various measurements and calculations and gives reasons for their different results.
doi:10.4236/ampc.2016.63004 fatcat:zhhmjm327zbxnkwkyvzhfj5qum