The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on the Juno Mission to Jupiter
The Juno Mission
The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on Juno provides the critical in situ measurements of electrons and ions needed to understand the plasma energy particles and processes that fill the Jovian magnetosphere and ultimately produce its strong aurora. JADE is an instrument suite that includes three essentially identical electron sensors (JADE-Es), a single ion sensor (JADE-I), and a highly capable Electronics Box (EBox) that resides in the Juno Radiation Vault and provides all
... ary control, low and high voltages, and computing support for the four sensors. The three JADE-Es are arrayed 120 • apart around the Juno spacecraft to measure complete electron distributions from ∼0.1 to 100 keV and provide detailed electron pitch-angle distributions at a 1 s cadence, independent of spacecraft spin phase. JADE-I measures ions from ∼5 eV to ∼50 keV over an instanta-D.J. McComas et al. neous field of view of 270 • × 90 • in 4 s and makes observations over all directions in space each 30 s rotation of the Juno spacecraft. JADE-I also provides ion composition measurements from 1 to 50 amu with m/ m ∼ 2.5, which is sufficient to separate the heavy and light ions, as well as O+ vs S+, in the Jovian magnetosphere. All four sensors were extensively tested and calibrated in specialized facilities, ensuring excellent on-orbit observations at Jupiter. This paper documents the JADE design, construction, calibration, and planned science operations, data processing, and data products. Finally, the Appendix describes the Southwest Research Institute [SwRI] electron calibration facility, which was developed and used for all JADE-E calibrations. Collectively, JADE provides remarkably broad and detailed measurements of the Jovian auroral region and magnetospheric plasmas, which will surely revolutionize our understanding of these important and complex regions.