Agricultural Education in the Public Schools, A Study of Its Development With Particular Reference to the Agencies Concerned.Charles Hubbard Judd , Benjamin Marshall Davis
American Journal of Sociology
The author undertook a very definite task and performed it with satisfactory results. He attempted " to note the essential features of that upheaval through which the Negroes passed in two years, from chattel slavery to full citizenship" in the Old Dominion state. Although the material is not exhaustive, it is convincing and one can scarcely read it without coming to the very conclusion that is so admirably expressed by the author: It is seen that the relation of the whites and blacks was
... nd blacks was during that period about as cordial as could have been expected; that they were adapting themselves to their new conditions; that the feeling of confidence and good will between the two races, although temporarily shocked by the events attending emancipation, was reasserting itself during the first year following the close of the war; that the laws had been so amended and modified as to secure for the freedmen all the civil rights and the most important political rights enjoyed by the whites. The reconstruction acts enfranchising the Negroes and the other federal legislation in their interest destroyed the confidence and good feeling that had existed between the two races and arrayed them in a bitter contest for the political control of the state. In the election of October, I867, the Negroes and radicals were successful. Of the one hundred and five delegates elected to frame a constitution for the state seventy-two were radicals. Of this number twenty-five were Negroes. The blacks attained full civil and political equality but were unable to secure social equality. These struggles engendered political and racial passions and antipathies that have not subsided after a generation.