Current approaches to the treatment of complications of endoscopic transpapillary interventions
Annaly khirurgicheskoy gepatologii = Annals of HPB surgery
Objective. Retrospective analysis of the treatment of complications after endoscopic retrograde transpapillary interventions. Material and methods. There were 5701 endoscopic retrograde interventions for the period from 01.01.2008 to 01.01.2019. Overall incidence of complications was 1.5%, mortality rate – 0.24%. Bleeding after endoscopic papillosphincterotomy developed in 13 (0.22%) cases, acute postoperative pancreatitis in 49 (10.85%) cases, ERCPassociated perforation in 24 (0.42%) patients.
... Results. Endoscopic approach (epinephrine injection into the edges of major duodenal papilla and cautery) was usually effective for bleeding after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Massive intraoperative bleeding required surgical treatment in one case with favorable outcome. There were no cases of recurrent bleeding. One patient died due to severe bleeding in 3 days after surgery. ERСP-associated ("retroduodenal") perforation occurred in 24 (0.42%) patients. Endoscopic treatment was undertaken in 16 cases and was effective in 15 (93.75%) cases. Overall mortality among patients with ERCP-induced perforation was 20.8%. An attempt of pancreatic duct stenting for postoperative pancreatitis was made in 30 cases; successful procedure was in 28 (93.3%) cases. Surgery resulted recovery in 26 (86.7%) patients. Progression of acute postoperative pancreatitis followed by death occurred in 2 cases despite successful pancreatic duct stenting. Mortality rate was 25%. Conclusion. Treatment of ERCP-associated complication is lengthy, time-consuming and expensive. Timely diagnosis and assessment of severity of complications is essential. It is necessary to determine an adequate surgical approach. Everyone should keep in mind all possible risk factors, clearly define the indications for ERCP and follow the technique of the procedure strictly in order to reduce complication rate. In our opinion, endoscopic approach is advisable for post-ERCP complications, because conventional surgery results higher postoperative mortality, increased duration and cost of treatment.